Status and obstacles to commercialization of coal liquefaction and gasification

a report by United States. General Accounting Office

Publisher: U.S. General Accounting Office in Washington

Written in English
Published: Pages: 64 Downloads: 749
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  • Coal liquefaction,
  • Coal gasification

Edition Notes

At head of title: 94th Congress, 2d Session. Committee print

Statementprepared by the General Accounting Office at the request of Jennings Randolph, chairman, Committee on Public Works for the use of the National Fuels and Energy Policy Study Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United States Senate pursuant to S.Res. 45
SeriesSerial - Senate, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs ; no. 94-33 (92-123)
ContributionsUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Public Works
The Physical Object
Paginationxiii, 64 p. ;
Number of Pages64
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL15233002M

Underground coal gasification Underground Coal Gasification is the process of in-situ conversion of coal deposits to combustible gaseous products(H 2, CO, CH 4) It is not a new technology but one that has evolved In recent years it has undergone a transformation due to technical advances, specific research and sharing of knowledge and information. Coal utilization - Coal utilization - Gasification: While the goal of combustion is to produce the maximum amount of heat possible by oxidizing all the combustible material, the goal of gasification is to convert most of the combustible solids into combustible gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane. During gasification, coal initially undergoes . 2 PROJECTED OUTPUTS The main outputs of the gasification and indirect liquefaction technologies will be high-Btu gas (i.e., pipeline quality), low- to medium-3tu gas (jnostly medium-Btu), and a variety of liquid fuels, including gasoline, jet fuel, and middle distillates, which will be produced in accordance with the projected demand pattern for refined petroleum products. Status and obstacles to commercialization of coal liquefaction and gasification RED May 5, Channeling foreign aid through private and voluntary organizations ID May 5, Need for an international disaster relief agency ID May 5,

On the basis of these results, confidence exists for the design of larger (30 tons per hour), more modern Koppers--Totzek gasifiers based on the gasification of COED char. Prior to these tests (and to other tests on the gasification of Coal Liquefaction Residues reported in EPRI Report AF) concern was expressed in several quarters that the. The principal alternative to XTL is direct coal liquefaction (DCL), which is the conversion of coal to liquids without the intervening step of producing synthesis gas. The primary DCL technology is hydroliquefaction, the reaction of coal with hydrogen and/or a hydrogen-donor solvent, usually in the presence of a catalyst. Coal Liquefaction: Issues Presented by a Developing Technology Ronald K. Olson Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Law Commons Recommended Citation Ronald K. Olson, Coal Liquefaction: Issues Presented by a Developing Technology, 12 Tulsa L. J. ().Author: Ronald K. Olson. Major Technical Issues Facing Low and Medium Btu Gasification E. L. CLARK Chap DOI: /bkch Publication Date (Print): Novem

Coal and Syngas to Liquids (Ke Liu, Zhe Cui, Wei Chen, and Lingzhi Zhang). Overview and History of Coal to Liquids (CTL). Direct Coal Liquefaction (DCTL). Indirect Coal to Liquid (ICTL). Mobil Methanol to Gasoline (MTG). SMDS. Hybrid Coal Liquefaction. Coal to Methanol. Coal to Dimethyl Ether (DME). Coal has been and will continue to be important to the U.S. standard of living. Coal is projected to continue to provide a relatively inexpensive, domestic fuel for electric power generation. The locations of the major U.S. coal deposits and the relative in-ground resources of the major coal beds are generally well known. Underground Coal Gasification: A Brief Review of Current Status Evgeny Shafirovich† and Arvind Varma* School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue UniVersity, Stadium Mall DriVe, West Lafayette, Indiana Coal gasification is a promising option for the future use of by: 4. Coal Gasification Ke Liu, Zhe Cui, and Thomas H. Fletcher. Introduction to Gasification Coal Gasification History Coal Gasification Chemistry Pyrolysis Process Combustion of Volatiles Char Gasification Reactions Ash–Slag Chemistry Gasification Thermodynamics

Status and obstacles to commercialization of coal liquefaction and gasification by United States. General Accounting Office Download PDF EPUB FB2

Get this from a library. Status and obstacles to commercialization of coal liquefaction and gasification: report. [United States. General Accounting Office.; United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.].

Get this from a library. Status and obstacles to commercialization of coal liquefaction and gasification: a report. [United States. General Accounting Office.; United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.; United States.

Congress. Senate. Committee on Public Works.]. @article{osti_, title = {Status of coal liquefaction in the United States and related research and development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory}, author = {Salmon, R and Cochran, Jr, H D and McNeese, L E}, abstractNote = {We divide coal liquefaction processes into four categories: (1) indirect liquefaction, such as Fischer-Tropsch and methanol synthesis, in which coal.

Status and obstacles to commercialization of coal liquefaction and gasification [microform]: report / By United States. General Accounting Office. and United States. Status and obstacles to commercialization of coal liquefaction and gasification, Energy Research and Development Administration: report to the Senate Committee on Public Works / By United States.

General Accounting Office. and United States. Gasification and liquefaction of coal is able to reduce or eliminate unwanted emissions like nitrogen and sulphur. Conditions in the thermochemical process are highly reducing and sulphur is converted to substances like H 2 S, COS and mercaptans, and nitrogen to NH 3.

These gases are produced at a high pressure and may be easily removed. One is the Direct coal liquefaction process, which converts coal to liquids by dissolving coal in a solvent at high temperature and pressure. This process is highly efficient, but the liquid products require further refining (‘hydrocracking’ or adding hydrogen over a catalyst) to achieve high grade fuel characteristics.

Coal Liquefaction. Liquefaction can be direct, from the coal itself, or indirect, from synthesis gas (CO and H2) obtained by gasification of the coal. Coal liquefaction incorporates both an increase in the H/C ratio and removal of heteroatoms (S, N, O) and inorganic oxides (ash).

the challenges and benefits of coal gasification process aUtoMation T he United States has enough coal to provide energy for the next years with a recoverable reserve base of nearly billion tons.

With oil prices continuously rising and unrest in the Middle East, utilizing our coal reserves seems a likely option for the United Size: 1MB. Coal gasification Table 1 Typical coal chemical projects’ unit consumption of coal and water and release of CO 2as a by-product (Seeking Alpha, ; ICIS, ) Chinese applications Standard coal consumption Water consumption CO 2emissions tonnes/tonnes Indirect coal liquefaction 13 Coal-to-olefins Coal will continue to play a significant role in the SA energy economy Integration of various coal utilisation options in one complex (polygeneration) may be an opportunity for SA Coal gasification can be an enabler for the polygeneration concept Direct coal liquefaction is highly coal specific and very costly due to severe process conditions.

BROWN COAL UTILIZATION TECHNOLOGY IN INDONESIA AND ITS COMMERCIALIZATION 1 Presented at Clean Coal Day in JapanIntenational Symposium, The 20th Anniversary, Clean Coal Frontier, “CCT’s for the Sustainable Growth & the Low Carbon Society “ BY: BOB KAMANDANU.

CHAIRMAN OF INDONESIAN COAL MINING ASSOCIATION (ICMA). Gasification Catalysis and CTL Research Group. This group aims to provide necessary input in the fields of value addition, gasification and liquefaction of coal.

This includes direct sourcing of coal for value added products including futuristic advanced carbon nanomaterials.

table of contents acknowledgment summary application of coal conversion technology to utility plants production of low-btu gas combined-cycle operation with low- btu gas coal liquefaction gasification of coal introduction the coal gasification process state of the art: coal gasification economics of high-btu coal.

A commercial liquefaction or gasification plant may process ab tons of coal a day. The Energy Research and Development Administration’s efforts on coal liquefaction and gasification have not yet pro- gressed to the point where a plant has been built that.

liquefaction of coal under pressure range of 18–20 MPa, at the temperatures from – °C. Because of the absence of catalysts, conversion of coal was very low. Commercialization of liquefaction was realized when the first plant in Leuna, Germany was set up injust after I.

Farbenindustrie invented hydrogenation catalyst in   Coal Liquefaction Coal liquefaction is the conversion of coal into a synthetic oil in order to supplement natural sources of petroleum. It is an attractive technology because 1) It is well developed and thus could be implemented fairly rapidly and 2) There are relatively large quantities of coal reserves.

USA US06/, USA USA US A US A US A US A US A US A US A US A US A Authority US United States Prior art keywords unit gasification steam gasification unit gas Prior art date Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not Cited by: Commercialization of coal liquefaction has been taking place across the globe in order to meet the rising demand for energy.

The coal liquefaction market can be segmented based on type of liquefaction process, application, by-product, and region/5(30).

Typically coal liquefaction processes are associated with significant CO 2 emissions from the gasification process or as well as from generation of necessary process heat and electricity inputs to the liquefaction reactors, thus releasing greenhouse gases that can contribute to anthropogenic global warming.

Coal Liquefaction is the process of converting coal to liquid fuels. Coal Liquefaction Definition. The process of coal liquefaction creates synthetic liquid fuels from solid coal as substitutes for various petroleum products. There are two types of liquefaction - direct and indirect Williams R.

H., Larson, E. (December ). A comparison of direct and indirect liquefaction. Reason for Discussion of Direct Liquefaction of Coal in Gasifipedia As the following discussion of Direct Coal Liquefaction (DCL) explains, the fundamental process approach of DCL does not involve gasification at all.

Therefore it would seem to be entirely out of scope of Gasifipedia. However, the following considerations require that discussion of DCL be included. Coal gasification is a process in which coal undergoes partial oxidation at higher temperatures and pressures with the help of oxygen and steam to produce a mixture consisting of CH4, CO2, CO, H2, and water vapor.

From: Synthesis and Applications of Electrospun Nanofibers, Download as PDF. About this page. coal hydrocarbons) or with other primary decomposition products of coal to produce gaseous products.

Not all the gaseous products generated by such processes are desir-able from the standpoints of fuel quality, further processing, and environmental issues. Therefore, coal gasification is always performed in connection with downstream pro-File Size: KB. 8/ Status and Obstacles to Commercialization of Coal Liquefaction and Gasification, (RED; 5/5/76)B obstacles in the Federal programs to demonstrate commer-cialization of synthetic fuels from coal.

We concluded that processes which produce synthetic fuels are commer. Overview of coal gasification technology, discussion of existing Polk project, future Taylorville project, with environmental commentary.

Includes materials. Energy Resources by Wendell H. Wiser,available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Emissions from gasification can be easily captured because of the high pressure and, often, concentrations.

Coal is the primary feedstock for gasification and will continue to be the dominant feedstock for the foreseeable future. The current growth of coal as a gasification feedstock is largely as a result of new Chinese coal-to-chemicals plants.

Coal liquefaction hunt is on. The government on Wednesday said that a Joint Task Force comprising officials of Coal India and Oil India has been formed for ascertaining availability of coal for coal liquefaction process in the.

To bypass the pollution that results from burning coal in power plants. It was to save the coal mining industry. In the s, DOE saw that the pollution from coal had to be overcome. It was known that the ash disposal and emission of sulfurous ga. Effect of initial coal particle size on coal liquefaction conversion 75 Another technique was considere d to see an d compare changes in the coal pore volume before and after liquefaction.capture and storage (CCS).

Coal quality is also very important for coal gasification output. The overnight capital cost of coal gasification plants is given per GJ of syngas output and ranges from $13/GJ for bituminous coal to $/GJ for sub-bituminous coal (US$ ).File Size: KB.Coal gasification is the process of producing syngas—a mixture consisting primarily of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, natural gas, and water vapour (H2O)—from coal and water, air and/or oxygen.

Historically, coal was gasified to produce coal gas, also known as "town gas". Coal gas is combustible and was used for heating and municipal lighting, before .